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Emergence of many emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases have occurred over the past decade, some of which are major public threat. SARS, MERS-CoV, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1), Ebola virus disease have raised concerns because of their virulence, their mortality, and/or their modality of transmission, or their impact on maternofoetal transmission (Zika virus). The witness of these emergences have conducted health authorities to have policies and plans and to imagine new organizations for health systems in order to identify any case of highly communicable virulent disease for immediate isolation, and adequate management.