Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial

Share this page:

Title

Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial

Subject

Description

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might be curtailed by vaccination. We assessed the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a viral vectored coronavirus vaccine that expresses the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.

Source

Folegatti, Pedro M., Katie J. Ewer, Parvinder K. Aley, Brian Angus, Stephan Becker, Sandra Belij-Rammerstorfer, Duncan Bellamy, Sagida Bibi, Mustapha Bittaye, Elizabeth A. Clutterbuck, Christina Dold, Saul N. Faust, Adam Finn, Amy L. Flaxman, Bassam Hallis, Paul Heath, Daniel Jenkin, Rajeka Lazarus, Rebecca Makinson, Angela M. Minassian, Katrina M. Pollock, Maheshi Ramasamy, Hannah Robinson, Matthew Snape, Richard Tarrant, Merryn Voysey, Catherine Green, Alexander D. Douglas, Adrian V. S. Hill, Teresa Lambe, Sarah C. Gilbert, Andrew J. Pollard, Jeremy Aboagye, Kelly Adams, Aabidah Ali, Elizabeth Allen, Jennifer L. Allison, Rachel Anslow, Edward H. Arbe-Barnes, Gavin Babbage, Kenneth Baillie, Megan Baker, Philip Baker, Ioana Baleanu, Juliana Ballaminut, Eleanor Barnes, Jordan Barrett, Louise Bates, Alexander Batten, Kirsten Beadon, Rebecca Beckley, Eleanor Berrie, Lisa Berry, Amy Beveridge, Kevin R. Bewley, Else Margreet Bijker, Tracey Bingham, Luke Blackwell, Caitlin L. Blundell, Emma Bolam, Elena Boland, Nicola Borthwick, Thomas Bower, Amy Boyd, Tanja Brenner, Philip D. Bright, Charlie Brown-O'Sullivan, Emily Brunt, Jamie Burbage, Sharon Burge, Karen R. Buttigieg, Nicholas Byard, Ingrid Cabera Puig, Anna Calvert, Susana Camara, Michelangelo Cao, Federica Cappuccini, Melanie Carr, Miles W. Carroll, Victoria Carter, Katrina Cathie, Ruth J. Challis, Irina Chelysheva, Jee-Sun Cho, Paola Cicconi, Liliana Cifuentes, Helen Clark, Elizabeth Clark, Tom Cole, Rachel Colin-Jones, Christopher P. Conlon, Aislinn Cook, Naomi S. Coombes, Rachel Cooper, Catherine A. Cosgrove, Karen Coy, Wendy E. M. Crocker, Christina J. Cunningham, Brad E. Damratoski, Lynne Dando, Mehreen S. Datoo, Hannah Davies, Hans De Graaf, Tesfaye Demissie, Claudio Di Maso, Isabelle Dietrich, Tao Dong, Francesca R. Donnellan, Naomi Douglas, Charlotte Downing, Jonathan Drake, Rachael Drake-Brockman, Ruth Elizabeth Drury, Susanna Jane Dunachie, Nick J. Edwards, Frances D. L. Edwards, Chris J. Edwards, Sean C. Elias, Michael J. Elmore, Katherine R. W. Emary, Marcus Rex English, Susanne Fagerbrink, Sally Felle, Shuo Feng, Samantha Field, Carine Fixmer, Clare Fletcher, Karen J. Ford, Jamie Fowler, Polly Fox, Emma Francis, John Frater, Julie Furze, Michelle Fuskova, Eva Galiza, Diane Gbesemete, Ciaran Gilbride, Giacomo Gorini, Lyndsey Goulston, Caroline Grabau, Lara Gracie, Zoe Gray, Lucy Belle Guthrie, Mark Hackett, Sandro Halwe, Elizabeth Hamilton, Joseph Hamlyn, Brama Hanumunthadu, Irasha Harding, Stephanie A. Harris, Andrew Harris, Daisy Harrison, Clare Harrison, Thomas C. Hart, Louise Haskell, Sophia Hawkins, Ian Head, John Aaron Henry, Jennifer Hill, Susanne H. C. Hodgson, Mimi M. Hou, Elizabeth Howe, Nicola Howell, Cecilia Hutlin, Sabina Ikram, Catherine Isitt, Poppy Iveson, Susan Jackson, Frederic Jackson, Sir William James, Megan Jenkins, Elizabeth Jones, Kathryn Jones, Christine E. Jones, Bryony Jones, Reshma Kailath, Konstantinos Karampatsas, Jade Keen, Sarah Kelly, Dearbhla Kelly, David Kerr, Simon Kerridge, Liaquat Khan, Uzma Khan, Annabel Killen, Jasmin Kinch, Thomas B. King, Lloyd King, Jade King, Lucy Kingham-Page, Paul Klenerman, Francesca Knapper, Julian C. Knight, Stanislava Koleva, Alexandra Kupke, Colin W. Larkworthy, Jessica P. J. Larwood, Anna Laskey, Alison M. Lawrie, Arlene Lee, Kim Yee Ngan Lee, Emily A. Lee, Helen Legge, Alice Lelliott, Nana-Marie Lemm, Amelia M. Lias, Aline Linder, Samuel Lipworth, Xinxue Liu, Shuchang Liu, Raquel Lopez Ramon, May Lwin, Francesca Mabesa, Meera Madhavan, Gary Mallett, Kushal Mansatta, Inēs Marcal, Spyridoula Marinou, Emma Marlow, Julia L. Marshall, Jane Martin, Joanne McEwan, Gretchen Meddaugh, Alexander J. Mentzer, Neginsadat Mirtorabi, Maria Moore, Edward Moran, Ella Morey, Victoria Morgan, Susan Jane Morris, Hazel Morrison, Gertraud Morshead, Richard Morter, Yama F. Mujadidi, Jilly Muller, Tatiana Munera-Huertas, Claire Munro, Alasdair Munro, Sarah Murphy, Vincent J. Muster, Philomena Mweu, Andrés Noé, Fay L. Nugent, Elizabeth Nugent, Katie O'Brien, Daniel O'Connor, Blanché Oguti, Jennifer L. Oliver, Catarina Oliveira, Peter John O'Reilly, Mairead Osborn, Piper Osborne, Cathy Owen, Daniel Owens, Nelly Owino, Mihaela Pacurar, Kaye Parker, Helena Parracho, Maia Patrick-Smith, Victoria Payne, Jennifer Pearce, Yanchun Peng, Marco Polo Peralta Alvarez, James Perring, Katja Pfafferott, Dimitra Pipini, Emma Plested, Helen Pluess-Hall, Katrina Pollock, Ian Poulton, Laura Presland, Samuel Provstgaard-Morys, David Pulido, Kajal Radia, Fernando Ramos Lopez, Jade Rand, Helen Ratcliffe, Thomas Rawlinson, Sarah Rhead, Amy Riddell, Adam John Ritchie, Hannah Roberts, Joanna Robson, Sophie Roche, Cornelius Rohde, Christine S. Rollier, Rosanna Romani, Indra Rudiansyah, Stephen Saich, Sara Sajjad, Stephannie Salvador, Lidia Sanchez Riera, Helen Sanders, Katherine Sanders, Shari Sapaun, Chloe Sayce, Ella Schofield, Gavin Screaton, Beatrice Selby, Calum Semple, Hannah R. Sharpe, Adam Shea, Holly Shelton, Sarah Silk, Laura Silva-Reyes, Donal T. Skelly, Heather Smee, Catherine C. Smith, David J. Smith, Rinn Song, Alexandra J. Spencer, Elizabeth Stafford, Amy Steele, Elena Stefanova, Lisa Stockdale, Anna Szigeti, Abdessamad Tahiri-Alaoui, Moira Tait, Helen Talbot, Rachel Tanner, Iona Jennifer Taylor, Victoria Taylor, Rebecca Te Water Naude, Nazia Thakur, Yrene Themistocleous, Andreas Themistocleous, Merin Thomas, Tonia M. Thomas, Amber Thompson, Samantha Thomson-Hill, Jennifer Tomlins, Susan Tonks, James Towner, Nguyen Tran, Julia A. Tree, Adam Truby, Kate Turkentine, Cheryl Turner, Nicola Turner, Sally Turner, Toby Tuthill, Marta Ulaszewska, Rachel Varughese, Neeltje Van Doremalen, Kristin Veighey, Marije K. Verheul, Iason Vichos, Elia Vitale, Laura Walker, Marion E. E. Watson, Benjamin Welham, Julie Wheat, Caroline White, Rachel White, Andrew T. Worth, Danny Wright, Suzie Wright, Xin Li Yao, and Yasmine Yau.

Date Last Updated (Year-Month-Day)

2020-07-20

Citation

Folegatti, Pedro M., Katie J. Ewer, Parvinder K. Aley, Brian Angus, Stephan Becker, Sandra Belij-Rammerstorfer, Duncan Bellamy, Sagida Bibi, Mustapha Bittaye, Elizabeth A. Clutterbuck, Christina Dold, Saul N. Faust, Adam Finn, Amy L. Flaxman, Bassam Hallis, Paul Heath, Daniel Jenkin, Rajeka Lazarus, Rebecca Makinson, Angela M. Minassian, Katrina M. Pollock, Maheshi Ramasamy, Hannah Robinson, Matthew Snape, Richard Tarrant, Merryn Voysey, Catherine Green, Alexander D. Douglas, Adrian V. S. Hill, Teresa Lambe, Sarah C. Gilbert, Andrew J. Pollard, Jeremy Aboagye, Kelly Adams, Aabidah Ali, Elizabeth Allen, Jennifer L. Allison, Rachel Anslow, Edward H. Arbe-Barnes, Gavin Babbage, Kenneth Baillie, Megan Baker, Philip Baker, Ioana Baleanu, Juliana Ballaminut, Eleanor Barnes, Jordan Barrett, Louise Bates, Alexander Batten, Kirsten Beadon, Rebecca Beckley, Eleanor Berrie, Lisa Berry, Amy Beveridge, Kevin R. Bewley, Else Margreet Bijker, Tracey Bingham, Luke Blackwell, Caitlin L. Blundell, Emma Bolam, Elena Boland, Nicola Borthwick, Thomas Bower, Amy Boyd, Tanja Brenner, Philip D. Bright, Charlie Brown-O'Sullivan, Emily Brunt, Jamie Burbage, Sharon Burge, Karen R. Buttigieg, Nicholas Byard, Ingrid Cabera Puig, Anna Calvert, Susana Camara, Michelangelo Cao, Federica Cappuccini, Melanie Carr, Miles W. Carroll, Victoria Carter, Katrina Cathie, Ruth J. Challis, Irina Chelysheva, Jee-Sun Cho, Paola Cicconi, Liliana Cifuentes, Helen Clark, Elizabeth Clark, Tom Cole, Rachel Colin-Jones, Christopher P. Conlon, Aislinn Cook, Naomi S. Coombes, Rachel Cooper, Catherine A. Cosgrove, Karen Coy, Wendy E. M. Crocker, Christina J. Cunningham, Brad E. Damratoski, Lynne Dando, Mehreen S. Datoo, Hannah Davies, Hans De Graaf, Tesfaye Demissie, Claudio Di Maso, Isabelle Dietrich, Tao Dong, Francesca R. Donnellan, Naomi Douglas, Charlotte Downing, Jonathan Drake, Rachael Drake-Brockman, Ruth Elizabeth Drury, Susanna Jane Dunachie, Nick J. Edwards, Frances D. L. Edwards, Chris J. Edwards, Sean C. Elias, Michael J. Elmore, Katherine R. W. Emary, Marcus Rex English, Susanne Fagerbrink, Sally Felle, Shuo Feng, Samantha Field, Carine Fixmer, Clare Fletcher, Karen J. Ford, Jamie Fowler, Polly Fox, Emma Francis, John Frater, Julie Furze, Michelle Fuskova, Eva Galiza, Diane Gbesemete, Ciaran Gilbride, Giacomo Gorini, Lyndsey Goulston, Caroline Grabau, Lara Gracie, Zoe Gray, Lucy Belle Guthrie, Mark Hackett, Sandro Halwe, Elizabeth Hamilton, Joseph Hamlyn, Brama Hanumunthadu, Irasha Harding, Stephanie A. Harris, Andrew Harris, Daisy Harrison, Clare Harrison, Thomas C. Hart, Louise Haskell, Sophia Hawkins, Ian Head, John Aaron Henry, Jennifer Hill, Susanne H. C. Hodgson, Mimi M. Hou, Elizabeth Howe, Nicola Howell, Cecilia Hutlin, Sabina Ikram, Catherine Isitt, Poppy Iveson, Susan Jackson, Frederic Jackson, Sir William James, Megan Jenkins, Elizabeth Jones, Kathryn Jones, Christine E. Jones, Bryony Jones, Reshma Kailath, Konstantinos Karampatsas, Jade Keen, Sarah Kelly, Dearbhla Kelly, David Kerr, Simon Kerridge, Liaquat Khan, Uzma Khan, Annabel Killen, Jasmin Kinch, Thomas B. King, Lloyd King, Jade King, Lucy Kingham-Page, Paul Klenerman, Francesca Knapper, Julian C. Knight, Stanislava Koleva, Alexandra Kupke, Colin W. Larkworthy, Jessica P. J. Larwood, Anna Laskey, Alison M. Lawrie, Arlene Lee, Kim Yee Ngan Lee, Emily A. Lee, Helen Legge, Alice Lelliott, Nana-Marie Lemm, Amelia M. Lias, Aline Linder, Samuel Lipworth, Xinxue Liu, Shuchang Liu, Raquel Lopez Ramon, May Lwin, Francesca Mabesa, Meera Madhavan, Gary Mallett, Kushal Mansatta, Inēs Marcal, Spyridoula Marinou, Emma Marlow, Julia L. Marshall, Jane Martin, Joanne McEwan, Gretchen Meddaugh, Alexander J. Mentzer, Neginsadat Mirtorabi, Maria Moore, Edward Moran, Ella Morey, Victoria Morgan, Susan Jane Morris, Hazel Morrison, Gertraud Morshead, Richard Morter, Yama F. Mujadidi, Jilly Muller, Tatiana Munera-Huertas, Claire Munro, Alasdair Munro, Sarah Murphy, Vincent J. Muster, Philomena Mweu, Andrés Noé, Fay L. Nugent, Elizabeth Nugent, Katie O'Brien, Daniel O'Connor, Blanché Oguti, Jennifer L. Oliver, Catarina Oliveira, Peter John O'Reilly, Mairead Osborn, Piper Osborne, Cathy Owen, Daniel Owens, Nelly Owino, Mihaela Pacurar, Kaye Parker, Helena Parracho, Maia Patrick-Smith, Victoria Payne, Jennifer Pearce, Yanchun Peng, Marco Polo Peralta Alvarez, James Perring, Katja Pfafferott, Dimitra Pipini, Emma Plested, Helen Pluess-Hall, Katrina Pollock, Ian Poulton, Laura Presland, Samuel Provstgaard-Morys, David Pulido, Kajal Radia, Fernando Ramos Lopez, Jade Rand, Helen Ratcliffe, Thomas Rawlinson, Sarah Rhead, Amy Riddell, Adam John Ritchie, Hannah Roberts, Joanna Robson, Sophie Roche, Cornelius Rohde, Christine S. Rollier, Rosanna Romani, Indra Rudiansyah, Stephen Saich, Sara Sajjad, Stephannie Salvador, Lidia Sanchez Riera, Helen Sanders, Katherine Sanders, Shari Sapaun, Chloe Sayce, Ella Schofield, Gavin Screaton, Beatrice Selby, Calum Semple, Hannah R. Sharpe, Adam Shea, Holly Shelton, Sarah Silk, Laura Silva-Reyes, Donal T. Skelly, Heather Smee, Catherine C. Smith, David J. Smith, Rinn Song, Alexandra J. Spencer, Elizabeth Stafford, Amy Steele, Elena Stefanova, Lisa Stockdale, Anna Szigeti, Abdessamad Tahiri-Alaoui, Moira Tait, Helen Talbot, Rachel Tanner, Iona Jennifer Taylor, Victoria Taylor, Rebecca Te Water Naude, Nazia Thakur, Yrene Themistocleous, Andreas Themistocleous, Merin Thomas, Tonia M. Thomas, Amber Thompson, Samantha Thomson-Hill, Jennifer Tomlins, Susan Tonks, James Towner, Nguyen Tran, Julia A. Tree, Adam Truby, Kate Turkentine, Cheryl Turner, Nicola Turner, Sally Turner, Toby Tuthill, Marta Ulaszewska, Rachel Varughese, Neeltje Van Doremalen, Kristin Veighey, Marije K. Verheul, Iason Vichos, Elia Vitale, Laura Walker, Marion E. E. Watson, Benjamin Welham, Julie Wheat, Caroline White, Rachel White, Andrew T. Worth, Danny Wright, Suzie Wright, Xin Li Yao, and Yasmine Yau. 2020. "Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial." The Lancet.

Abstract

Background

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might be curtailed by vaccination. We assessed the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a viral vectored coronavirus vaccine that expresses the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods

We did a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial in five trial sites in the UK of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein compared with a meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) as control. Healthy adults aged 18–55 years with no history of laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or of COVID-19-like symptoms were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 at a dose of 5 × 1010 viral particles or MenACWY as a single intramuscular injection. A protocol amendment in two of the five sites allowed prophylactic paracetamol to be administered before vaccination. Ten participants assigned to a non-randomised, unblinded ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime-boost group received a two-dose schedule, with the booster vaccine administered 28 days after the first dose. Humoral responses at baseline and following vaccination were assessed using a standardised total IgG ELISA against trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, a muliplexed immunoassay, three live SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation assays (a 50% plaque reduction neutralisation assay [PRNT50]; a microneutralisation assay [MNA50, MNA80, and MNA90]; and Marburg VN), and a pseudovirus neutralisation assay. Cellular responses were assessed using an ex-vivo interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The co-primary outcomes are to assess efficacy, as measured by cases of symptomatic virologically confirmed COVID-19, and safety, as measured by the occurrence of serious adverse events. Analyses were done by group allocation in participants who received the vaccine. Safety was assessed over 28 days after vaccination. Here, we report the preliminary findings on safety, reactogenicity, and cellular and humoral immune responses. The study is ongoing, and was registered at ISRCTN, 15281137, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04324606.

Findings

Between April 23 and May 21, 2020, 1077 participants were enrolled and assigned to receive either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=543) or MenACWY (n=534), ten of whom were enrolled in the non-randomised ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime-boost group. Local and systemic reactions were more common in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group and many were reduced by use of prophylactic paracetamol, including pain, feeling feverish, chills, muscle ache, headache, and malaise (all p<0·05). There were no serious adverse events related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. In the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group, spike-specific T-cell responses peaked on day 14 (median 856 spot-forming cells per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells, IQR 493–1802; n=43). Anti-spike IgG responses rose by day 28 (median 157 ELISA units [EU], 96–317; n=127), and were boosted following a second dose (639 EU, 360–792; n=10). Neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 32 (91%) of 35 participants after a single dose when measured in MNA80 and in 35 (100%) participants when measured in PRNT50. After a booster dose, all participants had neutralising activity (nine of nine in MNA80 at day 42 and ten of ten in Marburg VN on day 56). Neutralising antibody responses correlated strongly with antibody levels measured by ELISA (R2=0·67 by Marburg VN; p<0·001).

Interpretation

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 showed an acceptable safety profile, and homologous boosting increased antibody responses. These results, together with the induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses, support large-scale evaluation of this candidate vaccine in an ongoing phase 3 programme.

Funding

UK Research and Innovation, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Thames Valley and South Midland's NIHR Clinical Research Network, and the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner site Gießen-Marburg-Langen.

Accessibility

Free online on Lancet site.