NETEC Resource Library

Monkeypox

Monkeypox Outbreak Updates:

September 6, 2022: The CDC is reporting 54,911 confirmed cases of the virus globally, including 20,733 cases in the U.S.

September 5, 2022: The WHO reported that, globally, new cases decreased by 25.5% the week of August 29 (5,029 cases), compared to the previous week (6,746 cases).

August 12, 2022: The WHO has renamed the two variants of monkeypox. The Congo Basin or Central African clade is now referred to as Clade I; and the West African clade is referred to as Clade II, with subclades IIa and IIb. Clade IIb is the dominant variant in the current multi-country outbreak.

August 4, 2022: The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) declared monkeypox a public health emergency.

July 22, 2022: The WHO declares the monkeypox outbreak a public health emergency of international concern.

July 13, 2022: According to the CDC, there are 11,000 cases of monkeypox globally, with over 1,000 confirmed monkeypox cases in the United States.

June 30, 2022: As of June 30, 2022, there are more than 5,000 confirmed cases of Monkeypox in 52 countries. Case counts are likely an undercount as testing remains limited. In the U.S., there are now more than 350 confirmed cases (CDC).

June 28, 2022: The White House announced the first phase of its national monkeypox vaccine strategy to disseminate vaccines across the country to high risk individuals (White House Brief).

June 27, 2022: As of June 27, there were 4,357 confirmed cases of monkeypox in 48 non-endemic countries, according to the CDC. No deaths have been reported in the new outbreaks (CDC).

June 22, 2022: The CDC began shipping tests to five commercial laboratory companies, including some of the nation’s largest reference laboratories, to further increase monkeypox testing capacity and access in every community (HHS).

June 21, 2022: The CDC is reporting 3,098 confirmed cases of Monkeypox in 41 countries where the disease is not endemic, and of those, 142 cases have been reported in the U.S. (CDC).

June 17, 2022: To reflect the unified response that is required to meet the current Monkeypox outbreak, the WHO is no longer making a distinction between endemic and non-endemic countries in its reporting (WHO).

June 9, 2022: The CDC shared an update on what is known about Monkeypox transmission. Monkeypox is not known to be airborne, but it may spread through respiratory secretions when people have close, face-to-face contact. There are important differences between airborne transmission and transmission via respiratory secretions. Airborne transmission occurs when small virus particles become suspended in the air and can stay there for periods of time. These particles can spread on air currents, or sometimes even infect people who enter a room after the infected person has left. In contrast, monkeypox may be found in droplets like saliva or respiratory secretions that drop out of the air quickly. Long range (e.g., airborne) transmission of monkeypox has not been reported (CDC).

June 8, 2022: The CDC ramped up its recommendations for travelers to a level 2 alert, encouraging people to practice enhanced precautions to stem the Monkeypox outbreak, which has spread to 29 non-endemic countries. The highest level—level 3 warning—would advise against nonessential travel (CDC).

June 4, 2022: The WHO assesses the risk at the global level as moderate considering this is the first time that many Monkeypox cases and clusters are being reported concurrently in non-endemic and endemic countries in widely disparate geographical areas. As of June 2, 2022, there have been no deaths associated within the current Monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries, however cases and deaths continue to be reported from endemic countries (WHO).

June 2, 2022: As of June 2, 2022, the CDC is reporting 790 confirmed cases in 28 countries. View case numbers by country on the CDC Monkeypox and Orthopoxvirus Global Map.

May 27, 2022: The CDC has updated the case definition for Monkeypox. See the CDC website for clinical criteria & epidemiologic criteria + other important information.

May 25, 2022: A total of 219 confirmed cases have been reported from countries where the disease is not considered to be endemic, including Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the U.S., and United Arab Emirates (ECDC).

May 21, 2022: As of May 21, 92 laboratory confirmed cases, and 28 suspected cases of monkeypox in non-endemic countries have been reported to WHO. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing, however, reported cases thus far have no established travel links to endemic areas (WHO).

May 19, 2022: On May 18, 2022, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) confirmed a single case of monkeypox virus infection in an adult male with recent travel to Canada. DPH is working closely with the CDC, relevant local boards of health, and the patient’s health care providers to identify individuals who may have been in contact with the patient while he was infectious. 

The latest infections suggest that there may be community transmission of the Monkeypox virus, according to Dr. Susan Hopkins, chief medical adviser at the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA). Clinicians should be alert to patients presenting rashes without a clear alternative diagnosis.

May 16, 2022: The UKHSA confirmed four additional cases of Monkeypox – three in London and one case in the north east of England. None of these cases have known connections with the cases confirmed on May 7 or May 14. There is no link to travel to a country where Monkeypox is endemic, and where and how they became infected is under investigation. This brings the total number of UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) confirmed cases of Monkeypox in England to 7.

May 14, 2022: Two additional cases of Monkeypox were confirmed in London on May 14, 2022. The individuals live in the same household and are not linked to the previous confirmed case. Where and how they were infected is under investigation. UKHSA is working closely with the individuals and NHS colleagues and will be contacting people who might have been in close contact to provide information and health advice.

May 7, 2022: The first confirmed a case of Monkeypox in England on May 7, 2022, was in a patient who had recently traveled from Nigeria, where they are believed to have contracted Monkeypox before travelling to the UK. The UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) is working closely with the NHS to contact those who may have been in close contact with the patient, including passengers who traveled on the same flight to the UK.

Monkeypox:

Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by infection with monkeypox virus. Signs and symptoms typically begin with flu-like illness and swelling of the lymph nodes and progresses to a widespread rash on the face and body.

Since monkeypox was first identified in humans in 1970, it has been reported in several Central and Western African countries, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it is endemic. Monkeypox has been reported outside of Africa, historically linked to international travel or imported animals. However the source of infection in recent cases reported in the United States, Spain, Portugal, the United Kingdom are still under investigation (CDC).

Hospital and ambulatory staff members should screen all patients regardless of travel histories, exposure, or clinical symptoms that might suggest the person could have or have been exposed to someone with Monkeypox.  

NETEC has collected some essential resources on this page. Additionally, health care and public health professionals can submit a question to one of NETEC’s many experts via the web portal or by emailing info@netec.org.

See below for clinical care and infection control resources related to Monkeypox, NETEC Resources and Other Resources, and for Waste Management Resources.

NETEC Resources:

Other Resources:



Waste Resources: