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Characterization of Ebola convalescent plasma donor immune response and psoralen treated plasma in the United States

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Title

Characterization of Ebola convalescent plasma donor immune response and psoralen treated plasma in the United States

Subject

Description

In 2014, passive immunization by transfusion of Ebola convalescent plasma (ECP) was considered for treating patients with acute Ebola virus disease (EVD).

Date

2020-03-04

Citation

Dean, Christina L., Jay W. Hooper, John M. Dye, Samantha E. Zak, Scott A. Koepsell, Laurence Corash, Richard J. Benjamin, Steve Kwilas, Shannon Bonds, Anne M. Winkler, and Colleen S. Kraft. 2020. "Characterization of Ebola convalescent plasma donor immune response and psoralen treated plasma in the United States." Transfusion n/a (n/a).

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In 2014, passive immunization by transfusion of Ebola convalescent plasma (ECP) was considered for treating patients with acute Ebola virus disease (EVD). Early Ebola virus (EBOV) seroconversion confers a survival advantage in natural infection, hence transfusion of ECP plasma with high levels of neutralizing EBOV antibodies is a potential passive immune therapy. Techniques to reduce the risk of other transfusion‐transmitted infections (TTIs) are warranted as recent ECP survivors are ineligible as routine blood donors. As part of an ongoing clinical trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of ECP, the impact of amotosalen/UVA pathogen reduction technology (PRT) on EBOV antibody characteristics was examined.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS

Serum and plasma samples were collected from EVD‐recovered subjects at multiple timepoints and evaluated by ELISA for antibodies to recombinant EBOV glycoprotein (GP) and irradiated whole EBOV antigen, as well as for EBOV microneutralization, classic plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and EBOV pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA) activity.

RESULTS

Six subjects donated 40 individual ECP units. Substantial antibody titers and neutralizing activity results were demonstrated but were generally lower for the ACD plasma samples compared to the serum samples. Anti‐EBOV titers by all assays remained essentially unchanged after PRT.

CONCLUSION

Treatment of ECP with PRT to reduce the risk of TTI did not significantly reduce EBOV IgG antibody titers or neutralizing activity. Although ECP was used in the treatment of repatriated patients, no PRT units from this study were transfused to EVD patients. This inventory of PRT‐treated ECP is currently available for future clinical evaluation.

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