Accessible Special Pathogens Timeline

Year

Month

Day

End Year

End Month

End Day

Headline

Text

1944

 

 

1945

 

 

Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever Discovered

Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) was first discovered in Crimea in 1944.

1947

 

 

1952

 

 

Zika identified

Zika was first identified in 1947 and the first human cases found in 1952. By 2007 there were 14 documented cases, but many may have gone undocumented.

1967

 

 

1968

 

 

Marburg First Discovered

Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) was first discovered in 1967 when two laboratories, one in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany and the other in Belgrade, Serbia (Yugoslavia at the time). The infection stemmed from laboratory workers exposed to African green monkeys, or their tissues, from Uganda.

1969

 

 

1970

 

 

Lassa Fever discovered

Lassa fever is an acute viral illness that occurs in west Africa. The illness was discovered in 1969 when two missionary nurses died in Nigeria. The virus is named after the town in Nigeria where the first cases occurred. The virus, a member of the virus family Arenaviridae, is a single-stranded RNA virus and is zoonotic, or animal-borne.-CDC

1969

 

 

1970

 

 

Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever in the Congo

Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) was renamed after it was discovered to have caused illness in the Congo in 1969.

1976

 

 

1977

 

 

Ebola first recognized

The first recognized outbreak of Ebola took place in Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in Sudan/South Sudan. 318 cases were reported and there were 280 deaths.CDC

1976

 

 

1977

 

 

Infection in lab

A laboratory infection affected one in England due to a needle stick.CDC

1980

5

8

 

 

 

World Free of Smallpox

The 33rd World Health Assembly declared the world free of Smallpox.

1995

 

 

1996

 

 

Ebola outbreak

315 infected, 250 deaths in Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo.CDC

1998

 

 

2000

 

 

Marburg Outbreak in the DRC

There were 128 deaths out of 154 cases (83%) beginning in Durba, DRC. Most cases were among workers from a gold mine.

2002

1

1

2003

1

1

Emory's Unit Created

The unit was created in 2002 after the 2001 anthrax event.Stephens, et al.

2003

2

 

2004

4

 

SARS outbreak

The outbreak of Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) began in 2003 and spread to more than two dozen countries before it was contained.CDC

2004

 

 

2005

 

 

Marburg Outbreak in Angola

There were 227 deaths out of 252 cases (90%) beginning in Uige Province, Angola. 

2005

 

 

2006

 

 

Nebraska Biocontainment Unit Commissioned

The United States Centers for Disease Control commissioned the Nebraska Biocontainment Unit (NBU) in 2005.

2009

4

24

2010

8

10

H1N1 2009 Pandemic

In 2009 the H1N1 Swine flu became the dominant flu virus and was a pandemic. Read more.
See the WHO map.

2009

 

 

2011

 

 

Lassa Fever Spreads in West Africa

Lassa fever is endemic in parts of west Africa including Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria; however, other neighboring countries are also at risk, as the animal vector for Lassa virus, the "multimammate rat" (Mastomys natalensis) is distributed throughout the region. In 2009, the first case from Mali was reported in a traveler living in southern Mali; Ghana reported its first cases in late 2011. Isolated cases have also been reported in Côte d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso and there is serologic evidence of Lassa virus infection in Togo and Benin.
The number of Lassa virus infections per year in west Africa is estimated at 100,000 to 300,000, with approximately 5,000 deaths. Unfortunately, such estimates are crude, because surveillance for cases of the disease is not uniformly performed. In some areas of Sierra Leone and Liberia, it is known that 10%-16% of people admitted to hospitals every year have Lassa fever, which indicates the serious impact of the disease on the population of this region.-CDC

2012

9

1

2018

 

 

MERS-CoV is confirmed in September 2012, and continues to be ongoing

MERS-CoV was confirmed in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. According to the WHO by January 2018 there had been 2143 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV including at least 750 related deaths reported globally.

2013

3

 

 

 

 

Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus first reported in China

Annual sporatic epidemics are reported yearly in China after 2013.

2013

 

 

2018

 

 

Zika Outbreak Spreads

Guillain-Barre as side effects, and in October 2015 Brazil reported an unusual increase in cases of microcephaly. See the WHO timeline.

2014

3

 

2016

12

 

Ebola outbreak from 2014-2016.

The Ebola outbreak took place primarily in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. There were 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths. CDC
Click here for a timeline of the Ebola outbreak. Find out more about the history of Ebola, the 2014 Ebola Outbreak, and the development of the ASPR/CDC-supported network of healthcare facilities preparing for the next outbreak.

2015

5

11

2015

7

21

MERS-CoV outbreak in Korea

A 68 year old man returning from a trip through the Middle East is diagnosed with MERS-CoV in Korea. See details. According to the WHO by October 2015 a total of 186 MERS-CoV cases, including 36 deaths, had been associated with the outbreak in the Republic of Korea.WHO 

2016

1

26

2017

7

27

COCA educates on Zika

Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) prepares clinicians to respond to emerging health threats and public health emergencies. COCA communicates relevant, timely information related to disease outbreaks, disasters, terrorism events, and other health alerts. Beginning in January of 2016, COCA began periodically having calls on Zika with updates and information for clinicians. COCA also provides training resources.

2018

4

1

2018

7

24

Ebola Outbreak in the Congo

 Between April 1st and July 24th, 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported 54 Ebola virus disease cases in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), resulting in 33 deaths. Fifty WHO public health experts were deployed to assist the DRC’s Ministry of Health. Confirmed and probable cases have been reported from three health zones: Bikoro (21 cases), Iboko (29 cases), and Wangata (4 cases). On July 24th the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of Congo declared the end of the outbreak, after two incubation periods passed without infection.CDC outbreak page.

2018

8

1

     

Another Outbreak in the Congo

 On August 1, 2018, a new outbreak of Ebola was declared by the Ministry of Health in the North Kivu Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). CDC outbreak page.

2019

3

24

     

DRC Outbreak Tops 1000 Cases

As of March 24, 2019, public health officials have documented that the Ebola outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has surpassed 1,000 cases; the current total number of confirmed and probable cases is 1009, including 625 deaths and 318 survivors. The outbreak is the largest in DRC’s history and the second largest outbreak recorded of Ebola ever (after the 2014-2016 outbreak in West Africa).CDC